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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

GREAT BRITAIN.                                         507
The coke is strong and is in demand abroad, considerable quantities being exported. Two-thirds of all the coke sent abroad by England in 1903 was shipped from the Northeast Coast. There were also heavy shipments of coal, the proportion being one-third of the total exports. The ash in Durham coke is low, and this decreases the amount of silicions material entering the blast furnace. The fuel needed for a ton of Cleveland iron is given by Bell as 1-J tons, and in exceptional cases it may be lower, but, from information received from most excellent authority, I believe this is more often the hope than the actuality. Taking the whole campaign of the furnace and considering the amount actually paid for on board cars, there are few furnaces at Middlesbrough getting along with less than !£ tons, and many using more. The cost of coke is given by KirchhofE as $1,83 to $2,20 per ton at the mines, and the cost at the furnaces at Middlesbrough will be from $2.30 to $2.70 per ton. The selling price is from $3.15' to $3.50 per ton.
"When smelting Cleveland stone, the amount of limestone varies with the character of the ore. Bell gives the amount as 1175 to 1350 pounds per ton and the cost as 80 cents per ton at the fur-•nace, so that the cost of stone would be from 43 to 49 cents per ton of iron. KirchhoflE gives 1300 pounds of stone per ton of iron, but puts the stone at $1.20 per ton, making an item of 70 cents per ton. My own information agrees with the amount above given, but Cochrane, in a detailed investigation of Cleveland practice and the use of lime, shows a consumption. of 1600 pounds. In this case, however, the ore contained only 26.9 per cent, of iron. From another source I have been given the figure of 1900 pounds of stone at a cost of $1.10 per ton of stone, representing 95 cents per ton of pig-iron. We may, therefore, estimate the cost of Cleveland pig-iron for those who own their own coal mines and ore beds, counting nothing for the money invested, and also the cost for those who do not own their own supplies.
Per ton Pig-Iron. Fuel 1 % tons @2.40 ......	Minimum. Complete, ownership. ...... -..    $£.70	Fair practice. Market prices.
		|4.10
	, ......... 70	.95
Ore ..... . ..............	........       3.00	3.50
$6.40                     $8.55